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Andrew Schumann, Krzysztof Pancerz, Basil Lourié, Ivan A. Karpenko, Travis Dumsday, Vitaly I. Levin,


What is Time in Some Modern Physics Theories: Interpretation Problems

The Author: Ivan A. Karpenko,
The article deals with the problem of time in the context of several theories of modern physics. This fundamental concept inevitably arises in physical theories, but so far there is no adequate description of it in the philosophy of science. In the theory of relativity, quantum field theory, Standard Model of particle physics, theory of loop quantum gravity, superstring theory and other most recent theories the idea of time is shown explicitly or not.
Sometimes, such as in the special theory of relativity, it plays a significant role and sometimes it does not. But anyway it exists and is implied by the content of the theory, which in some cases directly includes its mathematical tools. Fundamental difference of space-time processes in microcosm and macrocosm is of particular importance for solving the problem. In this regard, a need to understand the time in the way it appears in modern physics, to describe it in the language of philosophy arises (satisfactory for time description mathematical tools also do not exist).
This will give an opportunity to get closer to the answer on question of time characteristics. And even if we do not obtain the exact answer, we will still be able to formulate the right question about its nature. For this purpose, the present research carries out analysis of the key theories of modern physics with regard to historical and scientific, historical and philosophical perspectives. In some cases, this gives an opportunity to detect the succession of the associated with time perception ideas, their development, as well as the origination of fundamentally new ones. During the analysis, the correct characteristics of time are formulated from the point of view of physical theory and the attempt to state the nature of time is made. On the ground of conducted research, the conclusions about current state of the problem and its future solution perspectives are drawn.

Logics for Physarum Chips

The paper considers main features of two groups of logics for biological
devices, called Physarum Chips, based on the plasmodium. Let us recall that
the plasmodium is a single cell with many diploid nuclei. It propagates
networks by growing pseudopodia to connect scattered nutrients (pieces of
food). As a result, we deal with a kind of computing. The first group of logics
for Physarum Chips formalizes the plasmodium behaviour under conditions of
nutrient-poor substrate. This group can be defined as standard storage
modification machines. The second group of logics for Physarum Chips covers
the plasmodium computing under conditions of nutrient-rich substrate. In this
case the plasmodium behaves in a massively parallel manner and propagates in
all possible directions. The logics of the second group are unconventional and
deal with non-well-founded data such as infinite streams.

Continuous-Logical Methods in Mathematical Economics

The Author: Vitaly I. Levin,
An application of continuous logic for the mathematical description of economical
systems is given. Parallel, sequential, parallel-sequential and sequentialparallel
systems are calculated using continuous logic (CL) methods.

Nicephorus Blemmydes on the Holy Trinity and the Paraconsistent
Notion of Numbers:
A Logical Analysis of a Byzantine Approach to the Filioque

The Author: Basil Lourié,
The paper deals with the most controversial – in the modern scholarly discussion
– episode within the Byzantine polemics on the Filioque, Nicephorus
Blemmydes‘ acknowledgement of proceeding of the Spirit through the Son
providing that the Son be considered as generated through the Spirit. The logical
intuition behind this theological idea is explicated in the terms of paraconsistent
logic and especially of a kind of paraconsistent numbers called by the author
―pseudo-natural numbers‖. Such numbers could not be interpreted via the notion
of ordered pair. Instead, they imply a known (first described by Emil Post in
1941) but still little studied logical connective ternary exclusive OR.

Interview: Orthodoxy and Philosophy

The Author: Travis Dumsday,
The interview of Tudor Petcu withTravis Dumsday. Travis Dumsday received his doctorate in philosophy in
2010 from the University of Calgary. After a
postdoctoral fellowship at the University of North
Carolina Chapel Hill, he taught for a year at Livingstone
College and then in 2012 took up a post at Concordia
University of Edmonton. A convert to Orthodoxy from
Presbyterianism (chrismated in 2009), Dumsday works
in multiple areas of philosophy, including philosophy of
science, metaphysics, philosophy of religion, and