Studia humana (SH) is a multi-disciplinary peer reviewed journal publishing valuable
contributions on any aspect of human sciences such as...


Andrew Schumann

Andrew Schumann worked at the Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus. His research focuses on logic and philosophy of science with an emphasis on non-well-founded phenomena: self-references and circularity. He contributed mainly to research areas such as reasoning under uncertainty, probability reasoning, non-Archimedean mathematics, as well as their applications to cognitive science. He is engaged also in unconventional computing, decision theory, logical modelling of economics.




Interview: Sources of The Analytic Philosophy in Slovenia

Issue: 1:1 (The first issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana, with Andrej Ule, Professor of Dept. of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Interview: Is Logic Ever Foundational?

Issue: 1:1 (The first issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana with András Máté, the head of Dept. of Logic, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Eötvös University Budapest, Hungary.

Interview: Philosophy of Science in Hungary

Issue: 1:1 (The first issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana with Péter Szegedi, Pofessor at the Department of History and Philosophy of Science, Eötvös University, Hungary.

Interview: P-Adics: Mathematics For Sigmund Freud?

Issue: 1:1 (The first issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana, with Andrei Krennikov, professor of applied mathematics at Linnaueus University, South-East Sweden, the director of the International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics, Engineering, Economics, and Cognitive Science.

Interview: Is Everything a Computation?

Issue: 1:1 (The first issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana, with Andy Adamatzky, Professor in Unconventional Computing in the Department of Computer Science, University of the West of England, Bristol, amir of the Unconventional Computing Centre, and a member of Bristol Robotics Lab.

Interview: One Day Post-Soviet Countries Will Rise Up?

Issue: 1:2 (The second issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana with Andrew Wilson, a Senior Policy Fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations.

Interview: Can an IT-Company like Apple Be Established in Belarus?

Issue: 1:2 (The second issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana with dr. Valery Tsepkalo, the Director of Hi-Tech Park Administration (Minsk, Belarus).

Interview: Libertarians in Russia: Moscow Never Sleeps?

Issue: 1:2 (The second issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana with Anatoly Levenchuk, President of and Victor Agroskin Vice-president of TechInvestLab.

Interview: Logical Simulations of Economic Phenomena and Computational Economics

Issue: 2:1 (The fifth issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana with Viktor Winschel, the economist at the University of Mannheim, Germany.

Issue: ()

Interview: The Light from the East

Issue: 2:3/2:4 (The seventh/eighth issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana, with George Kiraz, the founder of Beth Mardutho (formerly The Syriac Computing Institute) and Gorgias Press.

Interview: Is the Polish Logic One of the Best Traditions Still?

Issue: 1:3/1:4 (The third/fourth issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana with Roman Murawski, Professor at Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science of Adam Mickiewicz University.

Interview: The Christian Orthodoxy in the Modern World

Issue: 2:2 (The sixth issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana, with with Basil Lourié, the editor in chief of the Scrinium. Revue de patrologie, d`hagiographie critique et d`histoire ecclésiastique published by Gorigais Press and of its two supplement series: Orientalia Judaica Christiana and Scripta ecclesiastica.

Towards New Probabilistic Assumptions in Business Intelligence

Issue: 3:4 (The twelfth issue)
One of the main assumptions of mathematical tools in science is represented by the idea of measurability and additivity of reality. For discovering the physical universe additive measures such as mass, force, energy, temperature, etc. are used. Economics and conventional business intelligence try to continue this empiricist tradition and in statistical and econometric tools they appeal only to the measurable aspects of reality. However, a lot of important variables of economic systems cannot be observable and additive in principle. These variables can be called symbolic values or symbolic meanings and studied within symbolic interactionism, the theory developed since George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer. In statistical and econometric tools of business intelligence we accept only phenomena with causal connections measured by additive measures. In the paper we show that in the social world we deal with symbolic interactions which can be studied by non-additive labels (symbolic meanings or symbolic values). For accepting the variety of such phenomena we should avoid additivity of basic labels and construct a new probabilistic method in business intelligence based on non-Archimedean probabilities.

The Swarm Computing Approach to Business Intelligence

Issue: 4:3 (The fifteenth issue)
We have proposed to use some features of swarm behaviours in modelling business
processes. Due to these features we deal with a propagation of business processes in all
accessible directions. This propagation is involved into our formalization instead of
communicating sequential processes. As a result, we have constructed a business process
diagram language based on the swarm behavior and an extension of that language in the
form of reflexive management language.

Logics for Physarum Chips

Issue: 5:1 (The seventeenth issue)
The paper considers main features of two groups of logics for biological
devices, called Physarum Chips, based on the plasmodium. Let us recall that
the plasmodium is a single cell with many diploid nuclei. It propagates
networks by growing pseudopodia to connect scattered nutrients (pieces of
food). As a result, we deal with a kind of computing. The first group of logics
for Physarum Chips formalizes the plasmodium behaviour under conditions of
nutrient-poor substrate. This group can be defined as standard storage
modification machines. The second group of logics for Physarum Chips covers
the plasmodium computing under conditions of nutrient-rich substrate. In this
case the plasmodium behaves in a massively parallel manner and propagates in
all possible directions. The logics of the second group are unconventional and
deal with non-well-founded data such as infinite streams.

Preface. Philosophy and History of Talmudic Logic

Issue: 6:2 (The twenty second issue)
The purpose of the workshop Philosophy and History of Talmudic Logic held on October 27, 2016, in Krakow, Poland, was to examine the meaning of Talmudic hermeneutics in the contemporary epistemology and logic. One of the main features of Judaism is that Jewish religious laws are not dogmatic but based on specific legal reasoning. This reasoning was developed by the first Judaic commentators of the Bible (Tann’ayim) for inferring Judaic laws (halakah) from the Pentateuch. Our workshop was aimed to consider Judaic reasoning from the standpoint of modern philosophy: symbolic logic, rhetoric, analytic philosophy, pragmatics and so on. On the one hand, we are interested in possibilities to import into the Talmudic study modern logical methods. On the other hand, we are interested in possibilities to export from the Talmud new logical principles which are innovative to contemporary logic.

On the Babylonian Origin of Symbolic Logic

Issue: 6:2 (The twenty second issue)
The logical reasoning first appeared within the Babylonian legal
tradition established by the Sumerians in the law codes which were first
over the world: Ur-Nammu (ca. 2047 – 2030 B.C.); Lipit-Ishtar (ca. 1900 –
1850 B.C.), and later by their successors, the Akkadians: Hammurabi (1728
– 1686 B.C.). In these codes the casuistic law formulation began first to be
used: “If/when (Akkadian: šumma) this or that occurs, this or that must be
done” allowed the Akkadians to build up a theory of logical connectives:
“... or…”, “… and…”, “if…, then…”, “not…” that must have been applied
in their jurisprudence. So, a trial decision looked like an inference by modus
pones and modus tollens or by other logical rules from (i) some facts and
(ii) an appropriate article in the law code represented by an ever true
implication. The law code was announced by erecting a stele with the code
or by engraving the code on a stone wall. It was considered a set of axioms
announced for all. Then the trial decisions are regarded as claims logically
inferred from the law code on the stones. The only law code of the Greeks
that was excavated is the Code of Gortyn (Crete, the 5th century B.C.). It is
so similar to the Babylonian codes by its law formulations; therefore, we
can suppose that the Greeks developed their codes under a direct influence
of the Semitic legal tradition: the code was represented as the words of the
stele and the court was a logic application from these words. In this way the
Greek logic was established within a Babylonian legal tradition, as well.
Hence, we can conclude that, first, logic appeared in Babylonia and,
second, it appeared within a unique legal tradition where all trial decisions
must have been transparent, obvious, and provable. The symbolic logic
appeared first not in Greece, but in Mesopotamia and this tradition was
grounded in the Sumerian/Akkadian jurisprudence.

Hindu Spirituality: How to Grasp the Divine?

Issue: 6:4 (The twenty fourth issue)
The interview of Andrew Schumann, the managing editor of Studia Humana, with Max Demtchenko

Max Demtchenko is an Associate Professor at the
Moscow State Linguistic University. He has authored:
Aspects of Hindu-Christian Dialogue in the Mid-
Twentieth Century (according to Jules Monchanin’s
and Henri Le Saux’ Experience), PhD thesis (Moscow,
2011) and The Path of Saccidānanda (Moscow, Ganga,
2008). He has also published the first Russian
translation of Swāmī Abhishiktānanda’s Guru and
Disciple (Moscow, Ganga, 2013). His current academic
interest is in the field of North Indian rural bhakti
movements with a special focus on Nānak-panths as
well as on Rāma-rasika traditions’ poetry and practices.

Reflexive Games in Management

Issue: 7:1 (The twenty fifth issue)
In this paper reflexive games are defined as a way to act beyond equilibria to
control our opponents by our hiding motives. The task of a reflexive game is to
have the opponent’s actions become transparent for us, while our actions remain
obscure for the competitor. In case a reflexive game is carried out between agents
belonging to the same organisation (corporation, company, institute), success in a
reflexive game can be reached by a purposeful modification of some components
of a controlled system. Such a modification for the guaranteed victory in a
reflexive game is called reflexive management. This kind of management uses
reflexive games to control a knowledge structure of agents in a way their actions
unconsciously satisfy the centre’s goals.

Preface: Ideas and Society on the 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Leon Petrażycki

Issue: 7:3 (The twenty seventh issue)
It is a Preface to Volumes 7:3 and 7:4 (2018) consisting of articles presented at the International Interdisciplinary Conference Ideas and Society on the 150th anniversary of the birth of Leon Petrażycki, held on November 24, 2017, in Rzeszów, Poland.

Creative Reasoning and Content-Genetic Logic

Issue: 7:4 (The twenty eighth issue)
In decision making quite often we face permanently changeable and potentially infinite databases when we cannot apply conventional algorithms for choosing a solution. A decision process on infinite databases (e.g. on a database containing a contradiction) is called troubleshooting. A decision on these databases is call d creative reasoning. One of the first heuristic semi-logical means for creative decision making were proposed in the theory of inventive problem solving (TIPS) by Genrich Altshuller. In this paper, I show that his approach corresponds to the so-called content-generic logic established by Soviet philosophers as an alternative to mathematical logic. The main assumption of con tent-genetic logic is that we cannot reduce our thinking to a mathematical combination of signs or to a language as such an d our thought is ever cyclic and reflexive so that it contains ever a history.

Preface: Philosophical Basis for Making Decisions (on the 140th Anniversary of the Birth of Jan Łukasiewicz)

Issue: 8:2 (The thirtieth issue)
It is a Preface to Volume 8:2 (2019) consisting of articles presented at the International Interdisciplinary Conference anniversary of the birth of Jan Łukasiewicz, Rzeszów, Poland.

Logical Determinacy versus Logical Contingency. The Case of Łukasiewicz’s Three-valued Logic

Issue: 8:2 (The thirtieth issue)
In constructing the three-valued logic, Jan Łukasiewicz was highly inspirited
by the Aristotelian idea of logical contingency. Nevertheless, we can construct
a four-valued logic for explicating the Stoic idea of logical determinacy. In this
system, we have the following truth values: 0 (‘possibly false), 1 (‘necessarily
false’), 2 (‘possibly true’), 3 (‘necessarily true’), where the designated truth
value is represented by the two values: 2 and 3.

Judgments and Truth: Essays in Honour of Jan Woleński

Issue: 9:3/4 (the thirty fifth/sixth issue)
It is a Preface to Volume 9:3/4 that has brought a renewed focus to the role of truth conceptions in frameworks of semantics and logic. Jan Woleński is known due to his works on epistemological aspects of logic and his systematization of semantic truth theory. He became the successor and the worthy continuer of prominent Polish logicians: Alfred Tarski and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz. This volume is collected on the 80th anniversary of Woleński’s birth and draws together new research papers devoted to judgments and truth. These papers take measure of the scope and impact of Woleński's views on truth conceptions, and present new contributions to the field of philosophy and logic.

The War in Ukraine and a Real Evil

Issue: 11:2 (The forty second issue)
Howard Wettstein is currently Professor of Philosophy at UC Riverside. Previously he has held positions at the University of Notre Dame and the University of Minnesota, Morris and visiting positions at Stanford University and the University of Iowa. His main research areas are the philosophy of religion and the philosophy of language. He is the editor of “Midwest Studies in Philosophy” since 1974. His latest book is The Significance of Religious Experience (Oxford UP, 2012). Earlier he published two volumes in the philosophy of language, The Magic Prism (Oxford UP, 2004) and Has Semantics Rested On a Mistake? (Stanford UP 1991).

Issue: ()

Trends in Argumentation Logic

Issue: 11:3/4 (The forty third/fourth issue)
In this paper, we introduce the subject of the special issue Trends in Argumentation Logic. Here we mainly describe two approaches to argumentation logic with explicating monotonic and non-monotonic, or defeasible, reasoning and explain the role of artificial intelligence in applying argumentation logic. Then we give a short overview of the papers contributed to the special issue.

Intellectual and Ethical Virtues in the Situation of War

Issue: 11:3/4 (The forty third/fourth issue)
Vojko Strahovnik, Department Chair and Associate Professor at the Department of Philosophy and Research Fellow in Philosophy at the Faculty of Theology, University of Ljubljana. The impact of his work ranges from insights into the nature of normativity (the role of moral principles in the formation of moral judgments, the authority of the normative domain, epistemic agency, and epistemic virtuousness) to considerations related to practical dimensions of our lives (e.g., the role of guilt and moral shame in reconciliation processes, the importance of intellectual and ethical virtues in dialogue and education, global justice, animal ethics). His recent outreach activities include being a visiting lecturer (2017) and a Templeton and Fulbright research scholar (2016; 2022) at the University of Arizona, Department of Philosophy. The central question that incites him most is the structure and phenomenology of normativity. Webpage:

Issue: ()

Indian Philosophy and Some Perspectives of Non-Violence

Issue: 12:1/2 (The forty fifth issue)
The interview given by Dilipkumar Mohanta (b.1959), a Professor of Philosophy in the University of Calcutta (India). He is presently the Joint Secretary of Indian Philosophical Congress (Estd. 1925). He is a former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Kalyani, and also the founder Vice-Chancellor of the Sanskrit College and University. He is a former member of Indian Council of Philosophical Research. Professor Mohanta is the recipient of number of awards for his academic contribution; such as US Government State Scholar Award (2008) at the University of California (Santa Barbara), Fulbright-Nehru Visiting Lecturer (2011) at the University of Florida, William Paton Fellowship at the University of Birmingham (2015), IUC Associate at IIAS (Shimla, 2001-2003), Professor B. M. Barua Samman (award) in 2016, Jan Jacobsen prize (2016), Manjusree Samman (2022), Kamaladevi Smriti Samman (2022). He is the author of 15 books and 60 papers (in English & Bengali) published in journals in India and abroad. Cognitive Scepticism and Indian Philosophy, Studies in Vaidalyasutra of Nagarjuna, Studies in Jayarasibhatta’s Critique of Knowing from Words, Advaita-Siddhanta-Sara-samgraha (Sanskrit text with Introduction in English), Collected Works of Brajendra Nath Seal (ed.) are some of his important books in English. Mohanta also authored some books on Buddhist Philosophy, Advaita Vedanta Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion and Political Philosophy in Bengali.

The Traditional Approach to the Periodization of Indian Philosophy as a Hegelian Approach

Issue: 12:3 (The forty sixth issue)
This paper is devoted to the methodology of history of philosophy. There are considered two approaches: the Hegelian and Schellingian ones. It is shown that the Hegelian approach has many weak points. Both approaches are demonstrated on the material of Indian philosophy. The Schellingian approach was hammered out then by Foucault as archeology of philosophy.

Issue: ()

Logic in Poland in the 20th Century

Issue: 13:1 (The forty eighth issue)
After Poland gained independence in 1918, logic developed very quickly both as a scientific direction and as a taught discipline. This introduction to the special issue "Logic in Poland in the 20th Century", published in Volume 13:1 (2024) and Volume 13:2 (2024), provides the historical context for the development of logic in the interwar period.

Logic Matters – Gender and Diversity, Too

Issue: 13:3 (The fiftieth issue)
This interview features Andrea Reichenberger. Currently she holds a substitute professorship for history of technology at TUM Technical University of Munich. She is junior research group leader at the Department of Mathematics, University of Siegen, Germany, and leads the research project “Rethinking the History of Mathematics and Physics: Women in Focus.” Reichenberger has held several postdoctoral positions, e.g., at the Center for the History of Women Philosophers and Scientists (HWPS) at Paderborn University (Germany) and in the DFG research project “Thought Experiment, Metaphor, Model” at the Institute for Philosophy I at the Ruhr University Bochum. Between 2019 and 2021, she was a fellow at the University of Paderborn and principal investigator of the research project “Foundational research in mathematical logic – relativity – quantum physics. Case studies on the integration of women philosophers.” Reichenberger has written a book on Émilie du Châtelet (Springer, 2016) and has published many articles in journals, collected editions, and encyclopedias.