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How Law’s Nature Influences Law’s Logic

The Author: Jaap Hage,
Classical logic is based on an underlying view of the world, according to which
there are elementary facts and compound facts, which are logical combinations
of these elementary facts. Sentences are true if they correspond to, in last
instance, the elementary facts in the world. This world view has no place for
rules, which exist as individuals in the world, and which create relations between
the most elementary facts. As a result, classical logic is not suitable to deal with
rules, and is therefore unsuitable to deal with legal reasoning. A logic that is
more suitable should take into account that law is a part of social reality, in
particular a part that consists of constructivist facts, and that rules play a central
role in law. This article gives a superficial description of how social reality exists
and of the place of law and legal rules in it. It uses this description to argue that
traditional techniques to reason with and about legal rules provide a better logic
for law than classical logic. These techniques can be accommodated in a logic
that treats rules as logical individuals.

Neural Networks in Legal Theory

The Author: Vadim Verenich,
This article explores the domain of legal analysis and its methodologies, emphasizing the significance of generalization in legal systems. It discusses the process of generalization in relation to legal concepts and the development of ideal concepts that form the foundation of law. The article examines the role of logical induction and its similarities with semantic generalization, highlighting their importance in legal decision-making. It also critiques the formal-deductive approach in legal practice and advocates for more adaptable models, incorporating fuzzy logic, non-monotonic defeasible reasoning, and artificial intelligence. The potential application of neural networks, specifically deep learning algorithms, in legal theory is also discussed. The article discusses how neural networks encode legal knowledge in their synaptic connections, while the syllogistic model condenses legal information into axioms. The article also highlights how neural networks assimilate novel experiences and exhibit evolutionary progression, unlike the deductive model of law. Additionally, the article examines the historical and theoretical foundations of jurisprudence that align with the basic principles of neural networks. It delves into the statistical analysis of legal phenomena and theories that view legal development as an evolutionary process. The article then explores Friedrich Hayek’s theory of law as an autonomous self-organizing system and its compatibility with neural network models. It concludes by discussing the implications of Hayek’s theory on the role of a lawyer and the precision of neural networks.

Legal Gaps and their Logical Forms

The concept of legal gap is tackled from a number of logical perspectives and semantic methods. After presenting our own goal (Section 1), a first introduction into legal logic refers to Bobbio’s works and his formalization of legal statements (Sections 2 and 3). Then Woleński’s contribution to the area is taken into account through his reference to the distinction between two juridical systems (viz. Common Law vs Civil Law) and the notion of conditional norms (Section 4). The notion of reason is also highlighted in the case of Raz’s legal logic, thereby leading to a future connection with von Wright’s logic of truth and an analogy made with an anti-realist reading of truth-values and norms (Section 5). Our personal contribution is introduced through a reflection on how logic should deal with the logical form of norms (Section 6), before entering a number of crucial definitions and distinctions for the concepts of norm, legal statement, and promulgation (Section 7). The final point is a proposed semantics for legal statements, which is both many-valued and gap-friendly (Section 8). A distinction between a number of requirements for permission and forbiddance leads to a set of non-classical juridical systems in which non-permission and forbiddance are not equivalent with each other any more; this does justice to Woleński’s former distinction between Common Law and Civil Law, also leading ultimately to a non-classical square of legal oppositions in which several legal operators may collapse into other ones (Section 9).

Proof of the Existence of Hell: An Extension of the Stone Paradox

The Author: Piotr Łukowski,
As shown in [24], the paradox of the stone is a failed attempt to show that “omnipotence” is a contradictory concept. An element of the argument presented there is that God, while unable to lift the stone, can nevertheless annihilate it. This work considers the amplification of the paradox of the stone to the form generated by the question: can God create a stone which He will not be able to lift, nor, once created, will He be able to destroy.

Philosophy and Logic in Time of War

The interview given by Yaroslav Shramko (b. 1963), professor of the Department of Philosophy, rector of the Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogical University (Ukraine). His main research interests lie in the fields of logic and analytical philosophy. He has carried out several projects on modern non-classical logic: 1996-1998, within the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Fellowship at Humboldt University in Berlin (Germany); 1999-2000, within the Fulbright Program at Indiana University in Bloomington (USA); 2003-2004, as a Wilhelm Bessel Awardee at Dresden University of Technology (Germany) among them. He has been a frequent invited speaker at international conferences and congresses. He is a member of the editorial boards of several international logic journals, such as Logic and Logical Philosophy (Torun, Poland), Bulletin of the Section of Logic (Łódź, Poland), European Journal of Mathematics (Springer), Studia Logica (Springer). Prof. Shramko is the author of “Truth and Falsehood. An Inquiry into Generalized Logical Values” (Springer, 2011, joint work with Heinrich Wansing) and of a number of articles on logic and analytic philosophy in peer-reviewed international journals.

From the History of Lesniewski’s Mereology

In this paper, we want to present the genesis of Stanisław Lesniewski’s mereology. Although ‘mereology’ comes from the word ‘part’, mereology arose as a theory of collective classes. That is why we present the differences between the concepts of being a distributive class and being a collective class. Next, we present Lesniewski’s original mereology from 1927, but with a modern approach. Lesniewski was inspired to create his concept of classes and their elements by Russell’s antinomy. To face it, Lesniewski had to define the concept of being an element of based on the concept of being part of. Lesniewski showed that in his theory, there is no equivalent to Russell’s antinomy. We will show that his solution has nothing to do with the original approach because, in both cases, we are talking about objects of a different kind. Russell’s original antinomy concerned distributive classes, and Lesniewski’s considerations concerned collective classes.

The Devil’s Triangle: Empirical Evidence from Turkey on Growth, Current Account Deficit, and Inflation

The Author: Gülgün Çiğdem,
Determining the existence of the relationship between economic growth, current account deficit, and inflation will guide the selection of policies to be implemented. The distortions that may be caused by the policies to be preferred can be minimized by the measures to be taken if the relations are known. From this point of view, this study is a metaphorical study emphasizing the Bermuda Triangle, which caused unexplained losses due to the name given to the study. In the study, to determine the existence and direction of the relations between the variables, Turkey's annual growth, current account deficit, and inflation data for the 1974-2020 period were taken and subjected to various analyzes. In this study, carried out from this point of view, to determine the existence and direction of the relations between the variables, the annual growth, current account deficit, and inflation data of Turkey for the 1974-2020 period were taken and subjected to various analyzes. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) (1979, 1981) and Philips-Perron (PP) Unit Root tests (1988) and Lee-Strazicich Unit Root Test (2003) were used for stationarity tests. Regression was used since the variables were determined to be stationary at the level and cointegration could not be obtained. The current account deficit changed by 0.181812 units in the negative direction as a result of a one-unit rise in growth, according to the regression analysis (GDP). Furthermore, it has been shown that if inflation increases by one unit, the current account deficit moves in the positive direction by 0.042096 units. Toda Yamamoto Causality Analysis (1995) was used to investigate short-term causality links, and as a consequence, a two-way relationship between GDP and inflation, one-way from GDP and inflation to current account deficit was discovered.

Black Forest Melody
Between Philosophical Kitsch and Identitarian Ideology:
Heidegger´s Pastoral World-View in the Memorial Address.
Trial on a Classification

The Author: Gregor Becker,
Martin Heidegger – due to his outstanding role in 20th century philosophy, even beyond his grave the person and the philosopher are still subject to controversary discussions about his political attitudes. The question in the centre of the discussions is not if he was politically on the far right, but how far right he was, and also how far right his philosophy is. The details of Heidegger´s political approaches in his work are, however, pretty much cloaked and hidden behind the so typical Heideggerian typical style of writing was not decided for so long. Within Heidegger´s work, there is a short essay that may shed light on the roots and details of his ethnic-identarian thinking: The Memorial Address.

The Warsaw School of Logic: Main Pillars, Ideas, Significance

The Warsaw School of Logic (WSL) was the famous branch of the Lvov-Warsaw School (LWS) – the most important movement in the history of Polish philosophy. Logic made the most important field in the activities of the WSL. The aim of this work is to highlight the role and significance of the WSL in the history of logic in the 20th century.

Logic and Metalogic: a Historical Sketch

The Author: Jan Woleński,
This paper briefly discusses the relations between logic and metalogic in history. Metalogic is understood as a reflection on logic in its various senses, particularly sensu stricto (formal, mathematical) and sensu largo (formal logic plus semantic plus methodology of science). It is shown that metalogic in its contemporary understanding arose after mathematical logic had become a mature discipline. Special passage is devoted to metalogic in Poland. The last part of the paper discussed so-called logocentric predicament.

Response to Hewitt on Abortion

The Author: Walter Block,
The defense argument in favor of abortion sees the fetus as an invader, a trespasser, someone against whom violence is justified, since this very young person (the fetus) has initiated violence against his mother. Hewitt [30] rejects this argument. The present paper maintains the justification of this defense argument. My perspective is based on the private property rights of the mother. She owns her person. It is as if her body is her house, and a trespasser has invaded it. Surely, she has the right to evict such a person. This analogy is relatively easy to see in the case of rape. The unwanted fetus, now occupying a part of her body is in effect a intruder. If she really owns her body, which I contend she certainly does, she has a right to expel this person from her property. I also argue that voluntary sexual intercourse does not constitution an “invitation” for the pre-born baby to occupy her premises for nine months.

Why is the Teleological Argument so Popular?

The Author: Marcus W. Hunt,
Why are teleological arguments based on biological phenomena so popular? My explanation is that teleological properties are presented in our experiences of biological phenomena. I contrast this with the view that the attribution of teleological properties to biological phenomena takes place at an intellective level – via inference, and as belief or similar propositional attitude. I suggest five ways in which the experiential view is the better explanation for the popularity of such teleological arguments. Experiential attributions are more easy, impactful, and implastic. The experiential view accommodates cases of conflicting attributions, and it makes sense of the readiness with which we follow such teleological arguments. I respond to objections and explain how my view builds on existing answers to this question found in the philosophical literature.

The Influence of Organizational Culture on Human Capital Development of Polish Army Officers in the Context of Post-Service Employment

Organizational culture paves the way for employees, shows how one should function in a given organization – it aims to keep it together by adhering to similar values. Thanks to conditions prevailing there, specific rules employees know how they can perform their duties, properly cooperate with others and also how looks like the possibility of professional development, which is very important in the development of human capital. Human capital is people, their skills, creativity and qualifications. Development of capital through competence development has a positive impact on further functioning of the organization, but also on the satisfaction of employees themselves. In the case of retired officers of the Polish Army, who acquired specialized knowledge and valuable skills during their service, it is important to use their capital after the end of service. They can be supplemented with additional courses, training that will enrich their existing potential, and also enable them to find work in the civilian market. A survey was conducted among retired Army officers and employers/supervisors hiring retired officers from 2019 to 2021. The snowball method was used. A qualitative method was used – a survey questionnaire.