The eleventh issue:
Is Democracy Possible Without a Restriction of the Suffrage?
Today, the concept of democracy seems inextricably linked with that of universal suffrage. But is it true? To let that anyone with a given age has the right to vote is a very good democratic practice, or would prefer to question the criteria for access to this right, perhaps to develop new systems? The current crisis of democracy in the Western world is symptomatic of a detriment of the political consciousness of the people? And yet it is very likely to be admissible and that only from the mass, the large numbers, rises the better choices? In this paper I try to answer these questions, drawing from personal opinions and thoughts, which I hope will inspire questions and curiosity in those who, like me, believes that any system is always perfectible, and that its aim should be to that perfection, without fear of asking uncomfortable questions. Personally, in fact, I can accept democracy as “the worst form of government except all the others that have been tried”, to quote a famous statement by Winston Churchill. But not for that I give up, and I try other ways. Ways that are more satisfying, more fair and keep us away from the horrors that only an angry mob can do.
Graph of a Reflexive Game and Bélles-léttres
The authors consider reflexive games that describe the interaction of subjects (agents) making decisions based on an awareness structure, i.e., a hierarchy of beliefs about essential parameters, beliefs about beliefs, and so on. It was shown that the language of graphs of reflexive games represents a convenient uniform description method for reflexion effects in bélles-léttres.
Question of Consciousness: to Quantum Mechanics for the Answers
The article presents the possible role of consciousness in quantum-mechanical description of physical reality. The widely spread interpretations of quantum phenomena are considered as indicating the apparent connection between conscious processes (such as observation) and the properties of the microcosm. The reasons for discrepancies between the results of observations of the microcosm and macrocosm and the potential association of consciousness with these reasons are closely investigated. The mentioned connection is meant to be interpreted in the sense that the probable requirement for a complete understanding of quantum theory is the adequate description of consciousness within it and that the correct theory of consciousness should include quantum-mechanical theoretical apparatus. In this context, the question about the methods of scientific cognition is discussed, in particular, the problem of the place and the importance of intellectual intuition in science and philosophy of science. The author draws the conclusions about the current state of the “measuring” problem in its relationship with consciousness.
Natural Selection or Problem Solving. Critical Re-evaluation of Karl Popper`s Evolutionism
Among the philosophers and the educated audience the name of Sir Karl Popper is usually associated with the critical method, evolutionary epistemology, falsification as a criterion for the demarcation of scientific knowledge, the concept of the third world and with his dislike to dialectics and contradictions. This article is aimed to show in what way all these things are connected in the evolutionary researches of the philosopher and the new conceptions, which he contributed to studying the mechanisms of evolution. Also there is an attempt to comprehend the evolutionary views of Popper, test them for falsification, relate his epistemology with his claims, which he puts forward to the theory of objective knowledge evolution and show the obvious contradiction between them.
Interview: Do Judaic Political Views Belong either to Leftists or Rightists?
The interview with Furio Biagini, the Professor of Judaism History at the University of Salento, studies the history of the Jewish labor movement and the Jewish emigration to America as well as links between Judaism and anarchism and the Jewish opposition to Zionism, such as the group of ultra-Orthodox Jews, Neturei Karta.