Studia humana (SH) is a multi-disciplinary peer reviewed journal publishing valuable
contributions on any aspect of human sciences such as...


Paweł Rojek

Philosopher and sociologist, teaches ontology at Jagiellonian University. Interested in analytical metaphysics, cultural anthropology and Russian philosophy. The author of "Semiotyka Solidarności" [Semiotics of Solidarity] (Nomos, Kraków 2009). The editor-in-chief of "Pressje" journal.




The Logic of Palamism

Issue: 2:2 (The sixth issue)
The teaching of St. Gregory Palamas (1296–1359) is usually considered as a paradigmatic case of Eastern Christian mystical theology. It is held that it goes beyond rational thinking and is based on antinomic premises. Contrary to this widespread view, I try to give a consistent account of two crucial ideas of Palamism: the distinction between essence and energies, and the concept of deification. In doing this, I discuss and develop some formal analyses by Pavel Florensky (1882–1937). It proves that Palamas’ teaching is no less rational than any other metaphysical theory.

Dynamic Essences: Absolute, Prospective, Retrospective, and Relative Modalities

Issue: 7:1 (The twenty fifth issue)
Essential properties are usually thought as properties that things must always
possess, whereas accidental properties are considered as changeable. In this
paper, we challenge this traditional view. We argue that in some important
cases, such as social or biological development, we face not only the change of
accidents, but also the change of essences. To analyze this kind of change we
propose an alternative view on the relations between the modalities and time.
Some properties might be necessary or possible for a thing in a classical sense
throughout its existence, whereas others might be necessary or possible only
for some restricted periods. We distinguish therefore absolute, prospective,
retrospective, and relative modalities. As we argue, these non-classical
concepts of modality are useful in analysis of some puzzling case of seemingly
changing essences.