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The article in the issue 18:

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The Authors
Mehdi Shokri, Beata PÅ‚onka, Konrad Szocik, Brendan Sweetman, Tudor Petcu,
Konrad Szocik is an Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszow.


Wars and Conflicts are Only Randomly Connected
with Religion and Religious Beliefs.
An Outline of Historical, Cognitive, and Evolutionary Approach

Many scholars that study of religion and religious beliefs find that they affect
behavioral patterns. Some of them suggest that this impact is morally wrong
because religion and religious beliefs can cause aggression, conflicts, and wars.
However, it seems that this topic is more complicated and complex. Here I
show that religion and religious beliefs can affect mentioned above morally
wrong patterns only in some particular cases. Usually they do not do it. Here I
show an outline of philosophical historical approach that was critically oriented
against religion and that accused it about conflicts and wars. Then I briefly
discuss two current scientific research approaches to the study of religion,
cognitive and evolutionary. They falsify these critically oriented philosophers
because they treat connection between religious beliefs and conflicts as random
and necessary. The core idea of this paper assumes that religious beliefs do not
affect aggression and wars directly. They can sometimes strengthen or weaken
some biological mechanisms that then can be used to compete by conflicts or
by not-violent inter-group competition.


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