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Jan Woleński

Professor at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow and the University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszow.




Is Identity a Logical Constant and Are There Accidental Identities?

Issue: 1:3/1:4 (The third/fourth issue)
Propositional connectives and quantifiers are logical constants without any doubt. On the other hand, we speak about first-order logic with or without identity. Even this way of speaking suggests that identity has a special status to some extent. In fact, the status of identity is controversial.

Truth and Adequacy. Remarks on Petrażycki’s Methodology

Issue: 7:4 (The twenty eighth issue)
The paper discusses the concept of adequacy central for Pertażycki’s methodology.
According to Petrażycki any valuable scientific theory should be adequate,
that is, neither limping (to broad with respect its actual scope) nor jumping
(too narrow with respect to its actual scope). Consequently, adequacy of a
theory is a stronger condition than its truth. Every adequacy theory is true, but
not conversely. However, there is problem, because scientific laws are conditionals
(implications). This suggests that adequacy is too strong conditions, because
the consequence of an implication has a wider scope than its antecedent.
Thus, laws should have the form of equivalence. The paper shows how modeltheoretic
characterization of theories allows to recognize truth and adequacy,
consistently with Petrażycki’s claims.