Studia humana (SH) is a multi-disciplinary peer reviewed journal publishing valuable
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Many-worlds theory of truth
author: Alexander Boldachev,
The logical world is a set of propositions, united by common principles of establishing their truth. The many-worlds theory asserting that the truth of any proposition in any given logical world is always established by comparing it with standard propositions in this world – directly or via the procedure of transferring the truth.


Truth and Adequacy.
Remarks on Petrażycki’s Methodology

author: Jan Woleński,
The paper discusses the concept of adequacy central for Pertażycki’s methodology.
According to Petrażycki any valuable scientific theory should be adequate,
that is, neither limping (to broad with respect its actual scope) nor jumping
(too narrow with respect to its actual scope). Consequently, adequacy of a
theory is a stronger condition than its truth. Every adequacy theory is true, but
not conversely. However, there is problem, because scientific laws are conditionals
(implications). This suggests that adequacy is too strong conditions, because
the consequence of an implication has a wider scope than its antecedent.
Thus, laws should have the form of equivalence. The paper shows how modeltheoretic
characterization of theories allows to recognize truth and adequacy,
consistently with Petrażycki’s claims.

The Knobe Effect From the Perspective of Normative Orders

author: Andrzej Waleszczyński, Michał Obidziński, Julia Rejewska,
The characteristic asymmetry in the attribution of intentionality in causing side
effects, known as the Knobe effect, is considered to be a stable model of
human cognition. This article looks at whether the way of thinking and
analysing one scenario may affect the other and whether the mutual
relationship between the ways in which both scenarios are analysed may affect
the stability of the Knobe effect. The theoretical analyses and empirical studies
performed are based on a distinction between moral and non-moral normativity
possibly affecting the judgments passed in both scenarios. Therefore, an
essential role in judgments about the intentionality of causing a side effect
could be played by normative competences responsible for distinguishing
between normative orders.

The Emotivism of Law.
Systematic Irrationality, Imagined Orders,
and the Spirit of Decision Making

author: Adrian Mróz,
The process of decision making is predictable and irrational according to
Daniel Ariely and other economic behaviorists, historians, and philosophers
such as Daniel Kahneman or Yuval Noah Harari. Decisions made anteriorly
can be, but don’t have to be, present in the actions of a person. Stories and
shared belief in myths, especially those that arise from a system of human
norms and values and are based on a belief in a “supernatural” order (religion)
are important. Because of this, mass cooperation amongst strangers is possible.