Studia humana (SH) is a multi-disciplinary peer reviewed journal publishing valuable
contributions on any aspect of human sciences such as...


AI Case Studies: Potential for Human Health,
Space Exploration and Colonisation and a Proposed Superimposition
of the Kubler-Ross Change Curve on the Hype Cycle

author: Matthew Williams, Martin Braddock,
The development and deployment of artificial intelligence (AI) is and will
profoundly reshape human society, the culture and the composition of
civilisations which make up human kind. All technological triggers tend to
drive a hype curve which over time is realised by an output which is often
unexpected, taking both pessimistic and optimistic perspectives and actions of
drivers, contributors and enablers on a journey where the ultimate destination
may be unclear. In this paper we hypothesise that this journey is not dissimilar
to the personal journey described by the Kubler-Ross change curve and
illustrate this by commentary on the potential of AI for drug discovery,
development and healthcare and as an enabler for deep space exploration and
colonisation. Recent advances in the call for regulation to ensure development
of safety measures associated with machine-based learning are presented
which, together with regulation of the rapidly emerging digital after-life
industry, should provide a platform for realising the full potential benefit of AI
for the human species.

De Bello Robotico. An Ethical Assessment
of Military Robotics

author: Riccardo Campa,
This article provides a detailed description of robotic weapons and unmanned
systems currently used by the U.S. Military and its allies, and an ethical
assessment of their actual or potential use on the battlefield. Firstly, trough a
review of scientific literature, reports, and newspaper articles, a catalogue of
ethical problems related to military robotics is compiled. Secondly, possible
solutions for these problems are offered, by relying also on analytic tools
provided by the new field of roboethics. Finally, the article explores possible
future developments of military robotics and present six reasons why a war
between humans and automata is unlikely to happen in the 21st century.

How an Advanced Neurocognitive Human Trait
for Religious Capacity Fails to Form

author: Margaret Boone Rappaport, Christopher Corbally,
The authors present an evolutionary model for the biological emergence of
religious capacity as an advanced neurocognitive trait. Using their model for
the stages leading to the evolutionary emergence of religious capacity in Homo
sapiens, they analyze the mechanisms that can fail, leading to unbelief (atheism
or agnosticism). The analysis identifies some, but not all types of atheists and
agnostics, so they turn their question around and, using the same evolutionary
model, ask what keeps religion going. Why does its development not fail in
one social group after another, worldwide? Their final analysis searches for
reasons in important evolutionary changes in the senses of hearing, vision, and
general sensitivity on the hominin line, which together interact with both
intellectual and emotional brain networks to achieve, often in human groups,
variously altered states of consciousness, especially a numinous state enabled
in part by a brain organ, the precuneus. An inability to experience the
numinous, consider it important, or believe in its supernatural nature, may
cleave the human population into those with belief and those with unbelief.